文章摘要
刘硕,胡泽文,李玉平.区块链模型、技术与典型应用探究[J].情报工程,2019,5(6):015-036
区块链模型、技术与典型应用探究
Investigation on Models, Technologies of Blockchain and its Typical Applications
  
DOI:10.3772/j.issn.2095-915X.2019.06.002
中文关键词: 区块链;联盟链;私有链;技术;应用;比特币
英文关键词: Blockchain; alliance chain; private chain; technology; applications; bitcoin
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年项目“ 海量低被引论文的科学价值评估与预测研究”(71603128),江苏省自然科学基金青年项目“ 海量科技文献价值的负面评估指标及自动化评估模型研究”(BK20160972)。
作者单位
刘硕 1. 南京大学信息管理学院 
胡泽文 2. 南京信息工程大学管理工程学院 
李玉平 3. 南京天枢知识产权有限公司 
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中文摘要:
      区块链是目前国际新兴前沿技术,涉及技术较多且应用领域广泛,需要进行全面解读。本文首先比较分析了五种区块链技术及其之间的异同,以及传统技术与区块链技术之间的差异。然后对国内外代表性区块链企业、区块链技术平台及其典型应用进行详细分析和比较,以期为国内外相关研究人员及从业者提供一定的指导。通过比较分析,我们发现:(1)区块链技术主要由区块结构、去中心化且开源的协议机制、加密解密算法、P2P 分布式网络、公有链和联盟链组成。(2)与传统技术相比,区块链技术的优势在于通过技术实现的去中心化交易机制,数学加密、共识和信任算法,实现数据不可篡改功能。(3)目前的区块链应用平台数量众多,广泛应用于社会公共事业、跨境支付、保险理赔、产品交易保障、金融和证券交易、贷款交易和管理、供应链管理、公益慈善、医疗、物流、商品溯源等领域。(4)世界顶级公司,如:高盛、微软、阿里巴巴、腾讯、百度和360 等已经全面介入区块链技术,并针对不同场景设计和应用了区块链平台和产品。
英文摘要:
      Blockchain is currently an emerging international frontier technology, involving many technologies and a wide range of applications, requiring comprehensive analysis and review. This paper first briefly compared the differences and similarities among the five blockchain technologies,as well as between traditional technologies and blockchain technologies.Then, we made a detailed analysis and comparison of representative companies, technology platforms for blockchain, and their typical applications at home and abroad, in order to provide some guidance for relevant researchers and practitioners.Through comparative analysis, we find that: (1) Blockchain technology is mainly composed of block structures, decentralized and open source protocol mechanisms, encryption and decryption algorithm, P2P distributed networks, and public chains.(2) Comparing with traditional technologies, the advantages of blockchain technology lie in the decentralized transaction mechanism implemented through technology, mathematical encryption, consensus and trust algorithms, and data non-mutability.(3) The current number of blockchain application platforms is widely used in social utilities, cross-border payments, insurance claims, product transaction protection, financial and securities transactions, loan transactions and management, supply chain management, charity, medical, Logistics, product traceability and other fields. (4) The world’s top companies, such as Goldman Sachs, Microsoft, Alibaba, Tencent, Baidu, and 360, have fully intervened in blockchain technology and designed and applied blockchain platforms and products for different scenarios.
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